In much of my work you will see me pointing to bias, fallacies, and simple bad logic as causing or reinforcing some dangerous trend or thought. I felt it fair that I post some of my most (internally) referenced ones, and they just so happen to be those I consider the most irksome.
Group Attribution Error – Believing that the characteristics of an individual group member is representative of the group; or that a group decision outcome reflects the preferences of individual group members. This holds true even in the face of contrary evidence.
Actor-Observer Bias – Belief that others’ actions are derived from their personality, or some innate attribute; while simultaneously believing that one’s own actions are more influenced by situational factors and not personality derived.
Bizarreness Effect – bizarre or strange material is more easily recalled than common material.
Authority Bias – People tend to attribute greater acccuracy to the opinion of an authority figure, regardless of the content, and will be more influenced by that opinion.
Cross-Race Effect – The tendancy for the people of one ethnicity to have more difficulty identifying members of an ethnicity other than their own.
False Consensus Effect – People tend to overestimate the degree to which others agree with them.
System Justification – The tendency to defend of bolster the status quo. Existing social, economic, and/or political arrangements are preferred and alternatives disparaged, even at the expense of individual or collective self-interest.
Just-World Hypothesis – Bad things and injustices that occur are somehow deserved or earned.
Naieve Realism – The belief that reality and perception are objective facts, seen without bias; and thereby, those who do not agree with oneself are irrational, lazy, uninformed, or biased.
Base Rate Fallacy or Base Rate Neglect – Ignoring the base rate (general or generic information), while preferring to focus on specifc information (information pertaining to only a certain case).
Confirmation Bias – Tendency to search for, interpret, focus on, and remember information in a way that confirms one’s preexisting perception.
Availability Heuristic – Over estimating the likelihood of events with greater ‘availability’ in memory, which can be influenced by how recent the memories are or how unusual or emotionally charged they may be.
Identifiable Victim Effect – People respond more strongly to a single identified person at risk than to a large group of people at risk. (Basically why we still have poverty, inequality among the sexes, and don’t feel bad about exploiting poorer countries).
Illussory Truth Effect – A higher likelihood to believe a statement is true if it is easier to process, or stated many times, regardless of the actual veracity of the statement.
Duning-Kruger Effect – People with less skill over estimate their own ability, while people with more skill tend to under estimate their own ability.
Zero-Sum Bias – Perceiving a situation as a zero-sum game where one loses at the expense of another; when it does not correctly explain the phenomenon in question.
Hyperbolic Discounting – The tendency for poeple to have a stronger preference for more immediate payoffs relative to later payoffs.
Third-Person Effect – Believing that mass communicated media messages have a greater effect on others than on yourself.
Bias Blind Spot – Believing one is less biased than others or one is more able to identify bias in others.
Semmelweis Reflex – Rejecting new evidence that contradicts an existing paradigm.
Reactive Devaluation – Giving less value to proposals that purportedly originate with an adversary.
Curse of Knowledge – Better-informed people find it difficult to think about problems from the perspective of less-well-informed people.
Overconfidence Effect – Over estimating one’s own correctness.
Convervatism (in belief revision) – Insufficiently revising false beliefs when presented with new information.
Rhyme as Reason – Rhyming statements aare perceived as more true, regardless of content.
Belief Perseverence – Tendency to construct ‘theories’ to account for events or circumstances, and then to disregard evidence that contradicts these theories. Often this is the first impression one has. This continues to be true when the initial evidence is weak and inconclusive.
Backfire Effect – Reacting to evidence which disconfirms an extant belief by strengthening one’s belief in the existing belief. Also known as the continued influence effect, believing learned misinformation even after is has been corrected. So misinformation can continue to influence thoughts and inferences one generates even after correction has occured.
Availability Cascade – A self-reinforcing process in which a collective belief gains more and more plausibility through its increasing repetition in public discourse. Or repeat a lie enough times and people will believe it is true.
Entity Effect – A belief, hypothesis, or worldview can take on a life of its own. Even after it has been thoroughly discredited the belief persists and continues to be thought of as true.
Motivated Reasoning – People utilize a set of cognitive strategies to arrive at a belief they privately already desired to obtain.
Framing Effect – Drawing different conclusions from the same data depending upon how that information was presented.